A CHRONOLOGY OF ALCHEMY

 

by Arabella Akossy

 

 

10000 BC - Egyptian dating of Thoth, credited as inventor of writing, mathematics, astronomy, architecture, medicine and music. The Supreme Alchemist.

 

3400 BC - Athothis, deified being with great learning and healing abilities

 

3000 BC - rise of ancient Indian healing art Ayurveda, which used alchemically processed gold in medicines

 

2650 BC - Imhotep - designer and builder of first pyramid, philosopher, astronomer, healer

 

2670 BC - arrival of Hiram Ibif, the first Hermes according to Freemasonry

 

2000 BC - Berlin Papyrus

 

1500 BC - Papyrus of Ani

 

1450 BC - Book of the Dead

 

1364 BC - Amenhotep IV, later renamed Akhenaten, rediscovered the Emerald Tablet and set up new monotheistic religion based on writings of Thoth

 

650 BC - Zoroaster, a Persian philosopher presumed another Thoth-Incarnation

 

500 BC - Alchemy first arises in China

 

450 BC - Greek philosopher Empedocles first creates the concept of Four Elements

 

400 BC - Plato uses Empedocles doctrine; Plato s Timaeus

 

350 BC - Aristotle adapts Four Element theory which is later erroneously ascribed to him

 

332 BC - Alexander The Great finds the Emerald Tablet in an ancient temple tomb at Siwa, arranges for Greek translations

 

330 BC - the Emerald Tablet is put on public display in Heliopolis

 

300 BC - discipline of alchemy is starting to be actively pursued in China

 

290, 270 and 50 BC - revised Greek translations of the Emerald Tablet are issued

 

100 BC - female Jewish alchemist Maria Prophetissa invents the Bain Marie, etc.

 

32 AD - Balinas, later called Apollonius of Tyana, finds Emerald Tablet and its teaching are introduced to the Western world

 

317-332 AD - Ko Hung writes about three different kinds of alchemy

 

400 AD - all of Apollonius' books are among the vast knowledge destroyed in the successive burnings of the Alexandrian libraries

 

650 AD - earliest surviving translation of Emerald Tablet in an Arabic book known as Book of Balinas the Wise on Causes

 

790 AD - another translation of Emerald Tablet appears in Kitab Sirr al Asar, book on advice to kings

 

711 AD - Moorish invasion of Spain brings Arabic translation of Emerald Tablet to Europe

 

722-815 AD - Gebir (Jabir Hayyan)

 

800 AD - Arabic text by Jabir Hayyan contains Emerald Tablet translation

 

865-925 AD - Rhazes (al-Razi), Arabian physician and alchemist

 

947-999 AD -Quetztalcoatl, the Mayan Hermes incarnation

 

980-1037 AD - Avicenna (Ibn Sina), renowned physcian and philosopher

 

1098-1179 - Hildegard von Bingen (Scivias, 1148)

 

1144 - Earliest dated Western alchemical treatise - Robert of Chester: De compositione alchemiae

 

1150 - Turba philosophorum translated from Arabic

 

1200-1280 - Albertus Magnus (De mineralibus, 1264)

 

1201-1259 - Bartholomaeus Anglicus, reknowned encyclopedist (De rerum proprietatibus, 1230)

 

1214-1294 - Roger Bacon (1266:Opus maius, 1267: Opus tertium, Speculum Alchemiae))

 

1225 - Michael Scot Liber introductorius, Liber particularis

 

1225-1274 - Thomas Aquinas (1270: Summa theologia)

 

1231 - First mention of alchemy in French literature: Roman de la Rose

 

1235-1316 Ramon Lull (Ars Magna, 1275)

 

1235 - Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln, discusses transmutation of metals in De artibus liberalibus and De generatione stellarum

 

1240-1270 - Arnold De Villa Nova, writes a number of important treatises on alchemy

 

1240 - The Dominican Thomas of Cantimpre mentions alchemy in his Liber de natura rerum

 

1250 - Vincent de Beauvais: Speculum Maius (this encyclopaedia mentions alchemy in many places)

 

1256 - King Alfonso the Wise of Castile orders translation of alchemical texts from Arabic.

 

1257 - Franciscan friar Bonadventura d'Iseo's Liber Compostella provides some alchemical recipes

 

1272 - Provincal Chapter at Narbonne forbade the Franciscans to practice alchemy

 

1273 - Dominican order warned friars not to study or teach alchemy

 

1288-1339 (?) - John Dastin, writes his alchemical letters to Pope John XXII in 1320

 

1309-1348 (?) Petrus Bonus of Ferrara Pretiosa margarita novella, 1335)

 

1313 - Friars Minors' Constitution Generales Antique forbade the friars to practice alchemy

 

1317 - Pope John XXII's Papal Bull against alchemical counterfeit Spondet quas non exhibent. Cistercians ban alchemy.

 

1318 - The monk Adolf Meutha driven from the Cistercian Monastery at Walkenried for practising alchemy.

 

1323 - Dominicans in France prohibit the teaching of alchemy at the University of Paris, and demand the burning of alchemical writings

 

1329 - King Edward III requests Thomas Cary to find two alchemists who have escaped, and to find the secret of their art

 

1330-1418 - Nicholas Flamel (Figures hierogliphiques)

 

1330 - Pope John XXII gives funds to his physician to set up a laboratory for a "certain secret work"

 

1338-1400 - (?) Geoffrey Chaucer

 

1339 - Pope Benedict XII orders an investigation into the alchemical activities of some clerics and monks

 

1352 - Pseudo-Lullian Liber de secretis naturae seu de quinta essentia

 

1356 - Pope Innocent VI imprisons the Catalan alchemist John of Rupescissa

 

1357 - Hortulanus' commentary on the Emerald Tablet of Hermes

 

1358 - Francesco Petrarch discussed alchemy in De remediis utriusque fortunae

 

1376 - The Dominican Directorium inquisitorum, the textbook for inquisitors, places alchemists among magicians and wizards.

 

1379-1439 - (?) Isaac Holland

 

1380 - King Charles V the Wise issues a decree forbidding alchemical experiments

 

1385-1441 - (?) Georges Aurach

 

1403 - King Henry IV of England issues a prohibition of alchemy

 

1412-1480 - (?) Lacinius

 

1406-1490 - Bernard of Treviso

 

1415-1490 - George Ripley (Compound of Alchemy, 1471, Medulla alchemiae, 1476)

 

1415 - Early German Buch der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit paralleling Christ and the Philosophers' stone

 

1433-1499 - Marsilio Ficino (sets up the Platonic academy in Florence,1450, translation of Corpus Hermeticum, 1471)

 

1454-1537 - Augurello

 

1455-1522 - Johannes Reuchlin

 

1456 - twelve men petition Henry VI of England for a license to practice alchemy

 

1463-1494 - Pico della Mirandola

1465-1518 - (?) Trithemius of Sponheim

1468-1540 - (?) Francesco Giorgi

1470 - Der Antichrist und die Zehn Zeichen associates alchemists with demons and satan

1477 - Thomas Norton: Ordinall

1484 - Avicenna's De anima published

1485 - Pseudo Geber s Summa perfectionis published

 

1486-1535 - Henry Cornelius Agrippa (Three Books of Occult Philosophy, 1531)

 

1488 - The figure of Hermes Trismegistus is put into the mosaic pavement in the Sienna Cathedral

 

1493-1541 - Paracelsus, revolutionary German physician, employed alchemy in service of medicine; developed theory of tria prima

 

1494-1555 - Georgius Agricola (Bermannus, book on mining and extraction of ores, 1530, De re metallica)

 

1505 - Berg provides first published information on traditions of mining

1519 - Braunschweig's Das Buch zu Distillieren

 

1525-1580 - (?) Thomas Charnock

 

1527-1608 - John Dee (Hieroglyphic Monad, 1564)

 

1528-1577 - Adam von Bodenstein edits various writings of Paracelsus

 

1532-1595 - (?) Thurneisser von Thurn

 

1532 - Earliest manuscript of the Splendor solis

 

1533-1588 - Valentin Weigel

 

1535-1612 - Giambattista della Porta (Magia naturalis, 1560)

 

1540 - Vannoccio Biringuccio: De la Pirotecnia

 

1540-1616 - Andreas Libavius (Alchymia 1595, is first systematic textbook of chemistry)

 

1540-1601 - (?) Petrus Severinus

 

1541 - In hoc volumine alchemia is first alchemical compendium

 

1545-1608 - (?) Joseph Duchesne (Quercetanus)

 

1548-1600 - Giordano Bruno

 

1550 - Rosarium Philosophorum published

 

1550-1623 - Francis Anthony

 

1555-1595 - Edward Kelley

 

1555 - First edition of Alessio Piemontese Secreti

 

1560-1605 - (?) Heinrich Khunrath (Amphitheatrum sapientae aeternae)

 

1561 - Peter Perna prints the compendium of 53 alchemical treatises, Verae alchemiae artisque metallicae

 

1563-1628 - (?) Francis Bacon

 

1564 - Nazari's Il metamorfosi metallico et humano

 

1566-1636 - Michael Svendigius

 

1568-1622 - Michael Maier (Atalanta Fugiens, 1617)

 

1572 - Peter Perna prints the compendium Alchemiae quam vocant

 

1574- 1637 - Robert Fludd (Utriusque Cosmi historia, 1617;  Summum bonum,1629)

 

1574 - Peter Perna prints the collected works of Paracelsus in Latin.

 

1575-1624 - Jacob Boehme (Aurora)

 

1577-1644 - Johannes Battista von Helmont

 

1579-1651 - (?) Arthur Dee (Fasciculus chemicus in Latin, 1631)

 

1580-1609 - (?) Oswald Croll (Basilica chemica)

 

1583-1628 - (?) Johan Daniel Mylius (Opus Medico Chymicum, 1618, Philosophia Reformata, 1622)

 

1586-1654 - Johann Valentin Andreae

 

1599 - First appearance of a work of Basil Valentine. Book of Lambsprinck included in Barnaud's Triga Chemica

 

1600-1679 - (?) Barend Coenders van Helpen

 

1602-1680 - Athanasius Kircher

 

1602 - Publication of the first volumes of the compendium of alchemical texts Theatrum Chemicum

 

1603-1655 - Sir Kenhelm Digby

 

1603-1678 - (?) John Junior Winthrop

 

1604-1670 - Johann Glauber

 

1604 - Basil Valentine's Triumphal Chariot of Alchemy. Simon Studion's Naometria ms. Novum lumen chemicum

 

1610 - Jean Beguin Tyrocinium chymicum

 

1612 - Ruland's Lexicon alchemiae

 

1614 - Fama fraternitatis. Isaac Casaubon redates the works of Hermes Trismegistus

 

1615 - Confessio fraternitatis

 

1616 - Chymische Hochzeit

 

1616-1654 - Nicholas Culpepper

 

1617-1692 - Elias Ashmole (Theatrum Chemicum Britannicum, 1652)

 

1618 - Theophilus Schweighardt Speculum sophicum rhodo-stauroticum

1618-1699 - Franciscus Mercurius van Helmont

 

1620 - Gloria Mundi

 

1622-1666 - Thomas Vaughan (edits translation of Fama and Confessio in 1651)

 

1623 - Jean d'Espagnet s Enchiridion physicae restitutae

 

1624 - Stolcius' Viridarium chymicum

 

1625 - Musaeum hermeticum

 

1625 - Sophic Hydrolith (Water Stone of the Wise)

 

1625-1709 - Helvetius

 

1626-1691 - Robert Boyle (The Sceptical Chymist, 1661)

 

1628-1666 - (?) George Starkey

 

1636-1689 - Knorr von Rosenroth (Kabbala Denudata, 1674

 

1643-1727 - Isaac Newton (completed a translation of ET in 1680)

 

1651 - John French The Art of Distillation

 

1654 - Pierre Borel Bibliotheca chimica

 

1669 - Johann Becher develops pinguedo terrae principle

 

1672 - Bibliotheque des philosophes chimiques

 

1673 - William Cooper begins to publish works on alchemy especially those of Eirenaeus Philalethes

 

1677 - Mutus Liber

 

1678  - The Hermetic Museum by Arthur Edward Waite

 

1682 - Gichtel's edition of the collected works of Boehme

 

1690 - Publication of the English translation of the Chemical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz.

 

1702 - Georg Stahl develops Phlogiston Theory based on Becher's principle

 

1702 - Manget Bibliotheca Chemica Curiosa (alchemical compendium)

 

1710 - Samuel Richter begins to form the Order of the Golden and Rosy Cross

 

1719 - Georg von Welling Opus mago-cabalisticum (first edition)

 

1728 - Friedrich Roth-Scholtz Deutsches theatrum chemicum

 

1735 - Abraham Eleazar Uraltes chymisches Werck

 

1752 - Hermaphroditisches Sonn- und Monds-Kind

 

1758 - Dom Pernety Dictionnaire Mytho-Hermetique

 

1774 - Jospeh Priestley isolates Dephlogisticated Air

 

1776 - Adam Weishaupt forms the Order of Illuminati of Bavaria

 

1779 - Birkholz Der Compass der Weisen

 

1785 - Geheime Figuren

 

1789 - Traite Elementaire de Chimie by Atoine-Laurent Lavoisier marks transition to a strictly scientific approach

 

1802 - Karl von Eckartshausen Chemische Versuche

 

1869 - Gottlieb Latz Alchemy: The Science of the Great Elixir of the Alchemists

 

1898 - Antoine-Joseph Pernety: An Alchemical Treatise on the Great Art

 

1930s - C.G. Jung  Alchemical Studies

 

1930s - Manly P. Hall The Secret Teachings of All Ages

 

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